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Ankle Injuries & Education

Ankle Injuries & Education

The ankle joint is made up of three bones called the tibia, fibula and talus. The tibia is the thick long bone of the shin and is pronounced as a bump on the inside of the ankle (the medial malleolus). The fibula is the shorter and thinner bone on the outside of the tibia and is a non-weightbearing bone. The fibula is most pronounced as a bump at the ankle on the outside (lateral malleolus). These three bones at the ankle joint move like a hinge which allows plantar and dorsiflexion ( up and down movement of the foot).

SPRAINS & INVERSIONS

SPRAINS & INVERSIONS
Definition:An inversion sprain involves over stretching the outside ligaments of the ankle (anterior talofibular ligament). Ligaments heal slowly and once compromised, may never completely bounce back. There are several stages of sprains, from a Grade 1 (mild stretch of the ligament) to a Grade 3 (severe- complete tear of the ligament).
Function:The ankle is comprised of multi-directional joints that seem to move in a circular motion. Ligaments are connective tissue that holds bone to bone and stabilize the ankle joint in a number of places.
Mechanism of Injury

The most common ankle sprain involves rolling to the outside of the ankle. It can be provoked by uneven ground, sudden changes in direction, inadvertantly stepping incorrectly off of an object or landing on someone elses foot in sports.

Signs & Symptoms

• Pain with weightbearing and exercise
• Swelling and bruising
• The feeling of weakness or the ankle giving way
• Stiffness after rest
• Perhaps a tingling or numbness
• At the time of the sprain, one may experience a 'popping' sound

Causes

• Weak ankles or laxity of the ligaments about the ankle
• Improper footwear
• High arches or walking excessively on the outside of the ankle
• Flat arches and unstable ankles
• Previous injury to the ankle, like fractures or previous sprains
• Uneven surfaces
• Tight calf muscles
• Certain sports that involve quick changes in position.

Pedorthic Treatments

Custom made Orthotics can be an effective method to reduce your ankle discomfort. They are able to redistribute and load the foot in a different way in order to decrease stress to the joints, ligaments and tendons of the ankle. Filling the contours of the foot will allow for a wider base of support and thus better balance. Pedorthists use interventions such as supporting your medial/inside and lateral/outside arch and deep heel cups for superior control and support to the ankle. Proper footwear is also pivotal to your recovery. Talk to your Pedorthist about proper footwear choices for you. Ankle braces are also helpful to support the weak joint as it heals.

Other Treatment

• Physiotherapy
• Strength and balance exercises,
• Ice
• Compression of the joint with wraps
• Rest
• Taping
• Ankle braces

CUBOID DYSFUNCTION

CUBOID DYSFUNCTION
Definition:When forces of the foot and ankle are too high from weight-bearing activities, there is excessive stress put on a small bone on the outer aspect of the mid-foot. Tearing of the connective tissue may occur causing the cuboid bone to sublux or partially move out of its normal position.
Function:The function of the cuboid bone is to stabilize the outer aspect of the foot.
Mechanism of Injury

When forces of the foot and ankle are too high from weight-bearing activities, there is excessive stress put on a small bone on the outer aspect of the mid-foot. Tearing of the connective tissue may occur causing the cuboid bone to sublux or partially move out of its normal position.

Signs & Symptoms

• There may be redness or swelling in the middle of the outer part of the foot
• Painful in weightbearing activities but may also be present at rest
• Touching the area may be painful

Causes

Repetitive inversion sprains may contribute to a tension in a tendon (peroneus longus) that may cause the subluxation (moving the bone out of postition).
Excessive pronation (a rolling of the ankle and arch inward) may also cause stress to the outside to the foot/cuboid.

Pedorthic Treatments

Custom made Orthotics can be an effective method to reduce your outer foot discomfort. They are able to redistribute forces and off-load the foot in order to decrease stress to the peroneus longus tendon and the cuboid bone/lateral column. Pedorthists use interventions such as a supporting your medial/inside arch and use padding under the sore spot of the foot. Proper footwear is also pivotal to your recovery. Talk to your Pedorthist about proper footwear choices for you.

Other Treatment

• Taping techniques
• Manipulation or mobilization therapies by Physiotherapy or Chiropractors

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